Poultry International - October 2019 - 48

48 ❙ PoultryInternational

How sample type, analysis
impact Salmonella detection
Varying sampling and analysis methods can
greatly influence the final results.
DIANNA BOURASSA

M

ultiple factors can influence both
Salmonella prevalence and diversity of
serogroups detected from both pre- and
post-harvest samples.
Sampling methodologies vary widely when
sampling the environment, individual live birds,
carcasses and parts. Furthermore, protocols for
analyzing the samples following collection can also
impact both prevalence and serogroup diversity.
With more than 2,400 serotypes, it is reasonable to
expect that different Salmonella serotypes will have
differing abilities to grow and compete in environments such as dust, litter or the ceca. Even different
isolates of the same serotype can have a greater or
lesser ability to colonize birds.

Salmonella prevalence is impacted by
sampling method
■ Environmental sampling
Many different production house environmental
sampling methods for the recovery of Salmonella on
the farm have been studied. Environmental sampling
methods can be divided into two categories.
Direct methods incorporate removal and analysis of
samples such as feces, litter or dust. Surface sampling
methods rely on contact between the environment
and the moistened sampling media such as: conventional drag swabs; socks, or moistened absorbent
fabric placed on a shoe; shoe covers and intermittently
stepped on drag swabs (ISODs).
When direct sampling methods (feces and litter)

and surface sampling methods (drag swabs and socks)
were compared, sampling with socks had the highest
percentage of samples positive for Salmonella. When
several surface sampling methods (drag swabs, ISODs,
and socks) were further compared, ISODs and sock
methods that incorporated a greater contact pressure
with the litter surface from using a foot to step on the
sampling material were more sensitive for low levels
of Salmonella compared to conventional drag swabs,
which are simply dragged across the litter surface.
Overall, when collecting house environmental
samples for the detection of Salmonella, sampling
methods that include stepping on the moist
sampling material while in contact with the litter
are more sensitive than conventional drag swab
sampling of the litter surface.

■ Individual bird sampling
In addition to environmental samples, flock status can
also be determined through individual bird sampling.
These types of samples can either be non-destructive
or destructive, and include cloacal swabs, individual
bird feces and intestinal ceca. For non-destructive
methods, cloacal swabs and fecal samples, fecal
samples are more sensitive for Salmonella detection
than cloacal swabs. When using a destructive sampling
approach, sampling ceca resulted in the most positive
samples.
When sampling in a turkey production facility
comparing ceca (destructive method) and environmental swab samples (non-destructive), sampling
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Poultry International - October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Poultry International - October 2019

Poultry International - October 2019
Contents
Editor’s Comment
News
Top world broiler, egg rankings for 2019
World’s top 50 broiler producers
World’s top 25 egg producers
Africa’s top broiler producers
Africa’s top egg producers
Asia’s top broiler producers
Asia’s top egg producers
Caribbean & Central America’s top broiler producers
Caribbean & Central America’s top egg producers
Europe’s top broiler producers
Europe’s top egg producers
Middle East’s top broiler producers
Middle East’s top egg producers
North America’s top broiler producers
North America’s top egg producers
Oceania’s top broiler producers
Oceania’s top egg producers
South America’s top broiler producers
South America’s top egg producers
Biology, engineering, business intersect at Poultry Tech Summit
How sample type, analysis impact Salmonella detection
Products
Marketplace
Advertisers’ Index
Poultry International - October 2019 - CT1
Poultry International - October 2019 - CT2
Poultry International - October 2019 - Poultry International - October 2019
Poultry International - October 2019 - Cover2
Poultry International - October 2019 - Contents
Poultry International - October 2019 - Editor’s Comment
Poultry International - October 2019 - 3
Poultry International - October 2019 - News
Poultry International - October 2019 - 5
Poultry International - October 2019 - World’s top 50 broiler producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 7
Poultry International - October 2019 - World’s top 25 egg producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 9
Poultry International - October 2019 - Africa’s top broiler producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 11
Poultry International - October 2019 - Asia’s top broiler producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 13
Poultry International - October 2019 - 14
Poultry International - October 2019 - 15
Poultry International - October 2019 - 16
Poultry International - October 2019 - Asia’s top egg producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - Caribbean & Central America’s top egg producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 19
Poultry International - October 2019 - Europe’s top broiler producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 21
Poultry International - October 2019 - 22
Poultry International - October 2019 - 23
Poultry International - October 2019 - Europe’s top egg producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 25
Poultry International - October 2019 - Middle East’s top broiler producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 27
Poultry International - October 2019 - 28
Poultry International - October 2019 - 29
Poultry International - October 2019 - Middle East’s top egg producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 31
Poultry International - October 2019 - North America’s top broiler producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 33
Poultry International - October 2019 - North America’s top egg producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 35
Poultry International - October 2019 - 36
Poultry International - October 2019 - 37
Poultry International - October 2019 - 38
Poultry International - October 2019 - Oceania’s top egg producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - South America’s top broiler producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 41
Poultry International - October 2019 - 42
Poultry International - October 2019 - 43
Poultry International - October 2019 - South America’s top egg producers
Poultry International - October 2019 - 45
Poultry International - October 2019 - Biology, engineering, business intersect at Poultry Tech Summit
Poultry International - October 2019 - 47
Poultry International - October 2019 - How sample type, analysis impact Salmonella detection
Poultry International - October 2019 - 49
Poultry International - October 2019 - 50
Poultry International - October 2019 - 51
Poultry International - October 2019 - Products
Poultry International - October 2019 - 53
Poultry International - October 2019 - 54
Poultry International - October 2019 - 55
Poultry International - October 2019 - Advertisers’ Index
Poultry International - October 2019 - Cover3
Poultry International - October 2019 - Cover4
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