Poultry International - December 2017 - 14

14 ❙ PoultryInternational
YEARS

WILL NO-ANTIBIOTICS-EVER POULTRY IMPROVE HUMAN HEALTH?
als. Bacteria-carrying plasmids like this are called
coresistant. Coselection is the process where exposure to one antibiotic or metal selects for resistance
to one gene in the plasmid and then also selects for
all the other resistance genes that are in the plasmid.
Singer, speaking at the National Meeting on
Poultry Health, Processing and Live Production,
gave an example of how coselection complicates
efforts to halt the increase in antimicrobial resistance. He said that one plasmid pulled out of E. coli
found in a cow conveyed resistance to a number of
antibiotics as well as some metals like copper and
zinc. Copper and zinc are sometimes used in noantibiotics-ever growing programs to help regulate
gut microflora, but if a plasmid containing genes for
resistance to the metals and antibiotics were present
on the farm, then we might not be improving resistance like we think we are.
Hofacre said resistance genes to quaternary ammonia disinfectants has been found in plasmids containing antibiotic-resistant genes, so how the farm or
hatchery is cleaned could theoretically affect resistance to antibiotics.

Antibiotic resistance is a natural process
Just as the original antibiotics used in medicine
were first found in nature, antibiotic resistance has
evolved over millions of years in just about every environment on earth. We will never get to a zero level
of antibiotic resistance. It evolved naturally long

before humans harnessed antibiotics.
Joerger said the question is whether we can get
back to what would be considered the natural or basal level of antimicrobial resistance in the bacteria in
the bird's environment. He said no one really knows
what the basal level of resistance really would be,
but he said that it definitely wouldn't be as high as
what we see on poultry farms today.

Competitive exclusion and probiotics
Many successful no-antibiotics-ever husbandry
programs for broilers, turkeys and laying hens utilize probiotics added to the feed to maintain healthy
flocks with good performance. Hofacre said that a
microorganism selected for inclusion as a probiotic
because it helps keep Clostridia from colonizing
the gut may not help prevent Salmonella colonization. In the future, Hofacre said probiotic cultures
containing more than one serovar of microorganism
could be used to accomplish multiple objectives, like
preventing colonization with Salmonella and improving bird health.
Probiotics could contribute to food safety by aiding the production of poultry products with reduced
need for antibiotics, which could reduce selection
pressure for antibiotic resistance in the poultry
house. Probiotics could also help prevent colonization of the digestive system with Salmonella and
Campylobacter, which should means less of a pathogen load on ready-to-cook poultry products. ■

This is the 12th article In WATT Global Media's 100-year anniversary series, which looks at
key drivers that will shape the future of the worldwide poultry industry.

www.WATTAgNet.com ❙ December 2017


http://www.WATTAgNet.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Poultry International - December 2017

Poultry International - December 2017
Contents
Editor’s Comment
News
African chicken production future bright but challenging
100TH YEAR SERIES: Will no-antibiotics-ever poultry improve human health?
How the world’s top chicken producers are investing
5 poultry programs you don’t want to miss at 2018 IPPE
CO2-neutral egg farm opens in the Netherlands
3 tools to control reactivated Salmonella in poultry feed
How broiler super pre-starter diets impact bird growth
Improve broiler carcass quality by minimizing fl apping
Products
Marketplace
Ad Index
Poultry International - December 2017 - CT1
Poultry International - December 2017 - CT2
Poultry International - December 2017 - Poultry International - December 2017
Poultry International - December 2017 - Cover2
Poultry International - December 2017 - Contents
Poultry International - December 2017 - Editor’s Comment
Poultry International - December 2017 - 3
Poultry International - December 2017 - News
Poultry International - December 2017 - 5
Poultry International - December 2017 - African chicken production future bright but challenging
Poultry International - December 2017 - 7
Poultry International - December 2017 - 8
Poultry International - December 2017 - 9
Poultry International - December 2017 - 10
Poultry International - December 2017 - 11
Poultry International - December 2017 - 100TH YEAR SERIES: Will no-antibiotics-ever poultry improve human health?
Poultry International - December 2017 - BB1
Poultry International - December 2017 - BB2
Poultry International - December 2017 - 13
Poultry International - December 2017 - 14
Poultry International - December 2017 - 15
Poultry International - December 2017 - How the world’s top chicken producers are investing
Poultry International - December 2017 - 17
Poultry International - December 2017 - 5 poultry programs you don’t want to miss at 2018 IPPE
Poultry International - December 2017 - 19
Poultry International - December 2017 - CO2-neutral egg farm opens in the Netherlands
Poultry International - December 2017 - 21
Poultry International - December 2017 - 22
Poultry International - December 2017 - 23
Poultry International - December 2017 - 3 tools to control reactivated Salmonella in poultry feed
Poultry International - December 2017 - 25
Poultry International - December 2017 - 26
Poultry International - December 2017 - 27
Poultry International - December 2017 - How broiler super pre-starter diets impact bird growth
Poultry International - December 2017 - 29
Poultry International - December 2017 - 30
Poultry International - December 2017 - 31
Poultry International - December 2017 - 32
Poultry International - December 2017 - 33
Poultry International - December 2017 - Improve broiler carcass quality by minimizing fl apping
Poultry International - December 2017 - 35
Poultry International - December 2017 - 36
Poultry International - December 2017 - 37
Poultry International - December 2017 - Products
Poultry International - December 2017 - Marketplace
Poultry International - December 2017 - Ad Index
Poultry International - December 2017 - Cover3
Poultry International - December 2017 - Cover4
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