Poultry International - November 2017 - 33
PoultryInternational ❙ 33
HOW TO REDUCE BACTERIA DURING
the opposite end to which the water enters, and this counter
current can help to remove any fecal material.
Water temperature in the scalder is also crucial to maintaining the hygiene status, given that it can result in the reduction or growth of bacteria.
When a multi-tank system is used, the water temperature
should increase sequentially, with the first tank kept under
50C, while successive tanks have higher temperatures. Studies
have shown that if tank temperature should fall to 38-42C and
there is Salmonella in bird excreta, it will rapidly multiply,
given the ideal temperature for growth. Scalding tanks at this
temperature range offer ideal growth conditions for bacteria
and so the risk of carcass contamination increases. To prevent
this, temperature range at scalding should be 53-56C.
Some plants use even higher temperatures, 58-60C, leading to a reduction in micro-organism contamination.
Plucking operations can also lead to an increase in contamination if not properly managed. The pressure from plucking
fingers can force Salmonella and Campylobacter, for example,
into the birds' open follicles, and the risk of this is higher
where birds are not clean. Wing and tail feathers, which spring
from the muscles, are not always easily removed. Because of
this, more pressure is often be applied to the fingers, further
raising the risk of bacteria entering the follicles.
Choose a hardworking xylanase
to improve energy release
and feed efficiency
Nutritionists are aware of how phytase enzymes can reduce
feed costs, but many overlook the role xylanases can play
in maximising feed utilisation. Targeting the non-starch
polysaccharide (NSP) fraction of the diet can improve
nutrient digestion and absorption, improving energy release
and feed efficiency.
Approximately 45% of the NSP in corn and wheat-based
diets consist of arabinoxylans, the largest NSP component.
Xylanases improve nutrient digestibility through the
breakdown of arabinoxylans into specific small-chain
xylo-oligomers. Some of these xylo-oligomers can act as
a prebiotic in the lower GI tract, increasing volatile fatty
acid production, shifting the microbial profile and providing
vaulable energy for enterocytes.
Xylanases produce different xylo-oligomer profiles, which is
why the responses to xylanases can differ. An in vitro study
(Fig 1) looking at xylo-oligomer production from wheat bran
by Econase XT or a Multi NSPase, highlights this difference.
Of the xylo-oligomers measured, the proportion of X3X7, perceived to be beneficial to the animal, was three
times higher for Econase XT compared to a Multi NSPase.
Additionally, the proportion of X1-X2, which can have a
negative effect on animal performance, was significantly
lower for Econase XT.
Figure 1: Xylo-oligosaccharides production after 1h incubation
(relative to the ΣX3-X7 by a Multi NSPase)
Evisceration will reveal how well feed withdrawal was
performed. If it has not been properly carried out, bacterial
contamination will occur when the intestines break, or the
caecum or crop, where there may be high levels of Salmonella
Because of this, it is very important that, prior to chilling, carcasses are washed, brushed and properly disinfected,
to ensure that there is no organic residue either internally or
Eduardo Cervantes López is an international consultant
based in Colombia. He can be contacted at icproave@
hotmail.com or via www.icproave.com.
November 2017 ❙ www.WATTAgNet.com
It is important that xylanase remains active throughout
the gut - and is sufficiently thermostable to withstand
high-temperature feed processing. As the only intrinsically
thermostable xylanase, Econase XT ensures breakdown
of dietary arabinoxylans, maximising energy
release to deliver improved FCR
and cost reduction.
For further information visitt www.abvista.com