Poultry International - January 2017 - 26

26 ❙ PoultryInternational
LAYER NUTRITION: 12 PERENNIAL POINTS OF ANXIETY
needs to be addressed through management. Some additives might offer limited relief from this problem.

9

Cage layer fatigue

High-producing strains confined in cages often suffer
from this syndrome, especially if their bones are depleted
of calcium due to nutritional imbalances. Affected hens
become progressively paralyzed and die from hunger as
they move to the back of the cage. A prelayer diet with the
correct level of calcium seems to be helpful especially if it
is targeted along the appearance of sexual maturity.

10

Fatty liver syndrome

When hens overeat their daily allowance, or
when there is not enough protein in relation to protein/
amino acids in their feed, the excess energy is deposited
as fat. Excess fat in the liver is easily oxidized, leading to
hemorrhages and general liver dysfunction and to reduced
productivity, health and longevity. Restricting feed intake
is not easy because not all birds will overconsume feed. It
is by balancing the energy-protein ratio and by adding nutrients and additives that will help "dissolve" the fatty liver
that this problem can be addressed by nutritional means.

11

Calcium is the most discussed nutrient

When one wants to know about layer nutrition,
calcium should be the starting point. Understanding the
daily calcium cycle - from calcium in the feed to cal-

cium in the eggshell - and the recycling of calcium in
bones are the cornerstones of calcium nutrition. In addition, deciding on the optimum source of calcium, its form
and granular size and, finally, the time of supplemental
calcium feeding, all are important aspects of this delicate
subject. The role of phosphorus and vitamin D are two
further aspects that are often overlooked, but these two
nutrients interact with calcium absorption and utilization
and must be monitored.

12

Genetics and book dietary
specifications

Genetic suppliers always offer sound nutritional
background information on how to best feed their
layers. In most cases, these are a mix of scientific and
empirical evidence, but by nature they are best estimates or averages. Some producers and nutritionists
prefer to follow these guidelines to the letter, if only
not to be blamed when something goes wrong. Others
with more experience prefer to use these recommendations as guidelines and starting points based on
which they can customize the nutrition program of
each layer farm.
Layer nutrition is not limited to the above twelve
points, but these do constitute a good reference list for
the most common issues. Each point is worth further
analysis and study, and nutritionists, researchers and
producers are working hard to find better solutions. ■

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Poultry International - January 2017

Poultry International - January 2017
Contents
Editor’s Comment
News
EU poultry production forecast positive over next decade
Top Russian broiler producers grow in tough market
Antibiotic-free poultry’s broader economic implications
Layer nutrition: 12 perennial points of anxiety
Layer nutrition: 12 perennial points of anxiety
8 checks to minimize poultry processing rejects
Products
Marketplace
Advertisers’ Index
Poultry International - January 2017 - Poultry International - January 2017
Poultry International - January 2017 - Cover2
Poultry International - January 2017 - Contents
Poultry International - January 2017 - Editor’s Comment
Poultry International - January 2017 - 3
Poultry International - January 2017 - 4
Poultry International - January 2017 - News
Poultry International - January 2017 - 6
Poultry International - January 2017 - 7
Poultry International - January 2017 - EU poultry production forecast positive over next decade
Poultry International - January 2017 - 9
Poultry International - January 2017 - 10
Poultry International - January 2017 - 11
Poultry International - January 2017 - Top Russian broiler producers grow in tough market
Poultry International - January 2017 - 13
Poultry International - January 2017 - 14
Poultry International - January 2017 - 15
Poultry International - January 2017 - Antibiotic-free poultry’s broader economic implications
Poultry International - January 2017 - 17
Poultry International - January 2017 - 18
Poultry International - January 2017 - 19
Poultry International - January 2017 - 20
Poultry International - January 2017 - 21
Poultry International - January 2017 - 22
Poultry International - January 2017 - 23
Poultry International - January 2017 - Layer nutrition: 12 perennial points of anxiety
Poultry International - January 2017 - 25
Poultry International - January 2017 - 26
Poultry International - January 2017 - 27
Poultry International - January 2017 - 8 checks to minimize poultry processing rejects
Poultry International - January 2017 - 29
Poultry International - January 2017 - 30
Poultry International - January 2017 - 31
Poultry International - January 2017 - 32
Poultry International - January 2017 - 33
Poultry International - January 2017 - Products
Poultry International - January 2017 - 35
Poultry International - January 2017 - 36
Poultry International - January 2017 - 37
Poultry International - January 2017 - 38
Poultry International - January 2017 - 39
Poultry International - January 2017 - 40
Poultry International - January 2017 - 41
Poultry International - January 2017 - 42
Poultry International - January 2017 - Marketplace
Poultry International - January 2017 - Advertisers’ Index
Poultry International - January 2017 - Cover3
Poultry International - January 2017 - Cover4
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